Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) refer to a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections that are acquired through sexual activity. Common pathogens of STDs include: Chlamydia, Neisseria, Herpes virus, HIV, HPV, Treponema, Gardnerella, Mycoplasma and Trichomonas. Many STDs affecting women show no early signs or symptoms. As a result, they go undetected and untreated until complications arise. The consequences of untreated STDs are often more serious in women, including: infertility, tubal pregnancy, chronic pain, cervical cancer and more. Early screening, diagnosis, counseling and treatment can stop the spread of STDs.

Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is the diagnostic method most commonly used for the laboratory diagnosis of STD infections, but EIA has a lower detection limit of 10,000 elementary bodies and thus lacks sensitivity required for a screening assay, especially in asymptomatic men. Culture has been the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of many STD with high sensitivity and specificity. However due to a slow-growing tendency it takes 2-3 days to get a result and it also requires an invasively taken specimen. Nucleic acid based amplification assays using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have a lower detection limit of one to 10 elementary bodies and specificities comparable to culture. They also offer all advantages of non-culture tests in terms of specimen transport, batching, and rapid processing time of approximately 2-3 hours. The improved sensitivity of these assays allows to use non-invasive sampling such as first catch urine (FCU). PCR tests using FCU specimens have been shown to have sensitivities ranging from 87% to 97% for men and 82% to 93% for women with specificities of 98–100%.

Chlamydia trachomatis

C. trachomatis can be differentiated into 18 serovars (serologically variant strains) based on monoclonal antibody–based typing assays. Serovars A, B, Ba, and C are associated with trachoma (a serious eye disease that can lead to blindness), serovars D-K are associated with genital tract infections, and L1-L3 are associated with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen and can cause numerous disease states in both men and women. Both sexes can display urethritis, proctitis (rectal disease and bleeding), trachoma, and infertility.

Chlamydia trachomatis kits

B1-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Chlamydia trachomatis Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE1023

100

5 х102 copies/ml

Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma

Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma cause nonchlamydial nongonococcal urethritis. Mycoplasma species do not cause vaginitis, but they may proliferate in patients with bacterial vaginosis and may contribute to the condition. Ureaplasma speciescan cause placental inflammation and may invade the amniotic sac early, causing persistent infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including premature birth.

Ureaplasma kits

TB2-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Ureaplasma species Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B2-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Ureaplasma species Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

TB19-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B

Ureaplasma parvum/urealyticum Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

1 х103 copies/ml

B19-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B

Ureaplasma parvum/urealyticum Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

1 х103 copies/ml

B19-100FRT Q

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B

Ureaplasma parvum/urealyticum Quant Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

1 х103 copies/ml

TB2-100FRT Q

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B

Ureaplasma species Quant Real-TM 

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R  CE  100  5 х102 copies/ml 

B2-100FRT Q

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B

Ureaplasma species Quant Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B-2-100R

Ureaplasma urealyticum 450/750 IC

A

CE

110

1 х103 copies/ml

Mycoplasma kits

TB3-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Mycoplasma hominis Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B3-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Mycoplasma hominis Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

TB4-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Mycoplasma genitalium Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B4-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Mycoplasma genitalium Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B-3-100R

Mycoplasma hominis 330/550 IC

A

CE

110

1 х103 copies/ml

B-4-100R

Mycoplasma genitalium 280/550 IC

A

CE

110

1 х103 copies/ml

B-16-50R

Mycoplasma species 500

A

CE

55

100 cells/ml

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Gonorrhea, which is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is an important public health problem and is the most common reportable infectious disease. An estimated 700,000 new gonococcal infections occur annually in the United States. Gonorrhea is most frequently spread during sexual contact. However, it can also be transmitted from the mother’s genital tract to the newborn during birth, causing ophthalmia neonatorum and systemic neonatal infection. The incubation period is usually 2-8 days.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae kits

TB5-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B5-100FRT

RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B204-100FRT

RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B

Neisseria gonorrhoeae Quant Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B-5-100R

Neisseria gonorrhoeae 370/660 IC

A

CE

100

1 х103 copies/ml

Trichomonas vaginalis

Trichomoniasis is the most common, curable sexually transmitted disease in the world and furthermore one of the three most common vaginal infections in women. It is caused by a one-celled parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomoniasis affects both women and men. The most common location of infection in women is the vagina, in men it is the urethra. In women, the symptoms of trichomoniasis may include yellow-green vaginal discharge, fishy odor, pain during urination and sexual intercourse, and genital itching or irritation. Men usually do not show trichomoniasis symptoms, but some may experience discharge from the penis or burning during urination or ejaculation.

Trichomonas vaginalis

TB6-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Trichomonas vaginalis Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B6-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Trichomonas vaginalis Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B-6-100R

Trichomonas vaginalis 240/520 IC

A

CE

110

1 х103 copies/ml

Sexually Transmitted Disease: Multiplex PCR kits

B43-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A, B

С.trachomatis/Ureaplasma/M.hominis

Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE1023

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B46-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A, B

С.trachomatis/Ureaplasma/M.genitalium

Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE1023

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B60-100FRT

RG, SA-5

С.trachomatis/Ureapl./M.hominis/

M.genitalium Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE1023

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B61-100FRT

RG, SA-5

N.gonor./С.trachomatis/T.vaginalis/

M.genitalium Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE1023

100

5 х102 copies/ml

TB65-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC, MX, A, B

T.vaginalis/N.gonorrhoeae Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B65-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A, B

T.vaginalis/N.gonorrhoeae Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

TB75-100FRT Q

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A,

U.parvum/U.urealyticum/M.hominis

Quant Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit 
R  CE  100  5 х102 copies/ml 

B75-100FRT Q

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A,

U.parvum/U.urealyticum/M.hominis

Quant Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B67-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A, B

С.trachomatis/N.gonorrhoeae/

M.genitalium Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE1023

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B83-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A, B

T.vaginalis/N.gonorrhoeae/C.trachomatis Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit 

R CE1023  100 5 х102 copies/ml 

Candida albicans

Candida albicans is a diploid fungus (a form of yeast) and a causal agent of opportunistic oral and genital infections in humans. C. albicans is commensal and part of the gut flora, living in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Under normal circumstances, C. albicans is found in 80% of human population with no harmful effects, although overgrowth results in candidiasis. Candidiasis is often observed in immunocompromised individuals such as HIV-positive patients. Candidiasis, also known as “thrush”, is a common condition, usually easily cured in people who are not immunocompromised.

Candida albicans kits

TF1-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Candida albicans Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

1 х103 copies/ml

F1-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Candida albicans Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

1 х103 copies/ml

TF3-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A, B

Candida albicans/C.glabrata/C.krusei Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

1 х103 copies/ml

F3-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A, B

Candida albicans/C.glabrata/C.krusei Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

1 х103 copies/ml

TF5-100FRT

SA, RG, B

Candidosis Real-TM Quant

Complete Real Time Amplification kit  for detection of C.albicans, C.glabrata, C.krusei, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicans with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R CE 100 1 х103 copies/m 

F5-100FRT

SA, RG, B

Candidosis Real-TM Quant

Real Time Amplification kit  for detection of C.albicans, C.glabrata, C.krusei, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicans

R  CE 100 1 х103 copies/m 

Treponema pallidum

Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with different subspecies. T. pallidum causes syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease whose route of transmission is almost always by sexual contact, although there are examples of congenital syphilis via transmission from mother to child in utero or at birth. T. pallidum is able to penetrate mucosal membranes and abrasions on epithelial surfaces. Incubation time from exposure to development of primary lesions, which occur at the primary site of inoculation, averages 3 weeks but can range from 10-90 days. Syphilis can generally be treated with antibiotics, including penicillin. If left untreated, syphilis can damage heart, aorta, brain, eyes, and bones.

Treponema pallidum kits

TB20-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Treponema pallidum Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-B extraction kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

B20-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Treponema pallidum Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

5 х102 copies/ml

Bacterial vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV)is considered to be the most common cause of vaginal inflammation. It previously was called nonspecific vaginitis or Gardnerella-associated vaginitis. The adult human vagina is a complex ecosystem containing an abundance of microorganisms. In women of childbearing age this system is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., a genus of gram-positive, nonmotile rod-like bacteria, a defining characteristic of which is the ability to grow in acid media and tolerate acid conditions (pH < 4.5)- Lactobacilli also ferment carbohydrates to produce lactic acid and produce H2O2 which provides a natural defense against Gardnerella vaginalis.

In bacterial vaginosis (BV) the balance of flora is changed with reduced numbers of lactobacilli (normal concentration 106 – 1010 CFU/ml) and increased numbers of other facultative and anaerobic species such as anaerobic cocci Prevotella spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, and Mobiluncus spp. (normal concentration < 103-105 CFU/ml). G. vaginalis is virtually always present at high concentrations in women who have BV but is also detected frequently in healthy women and in some cases the concentration of Gardnerella vaginalis can reach 107-108 CFU/ml in absence of BV, so the most important marker of BV is the ratio of logarithm concentration of Lactobacillus spp. and G. vaginalis.

The clinical significance of studying vaginal flora is the quantitative determination of microorganisms to assess the ratio between different groups of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms and normal flora. The total quantity of bacteria serves as an indicator of infection level in the vaginal environment: under normal conditions it can vary between 106 and 109 (6-9 Log). The ratio between lactobacilli and the total bacterial quantity can be used as an indicator of the balance between normal and conditionally pathogenic flora: the normal proportion of lactobacilli should be 95 to 100% of total bacterial quantity.

Bacterial vaginosis kits

TR-B7-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC, MX, A, B

G.vaginalis/Lactobac. species Real-TM Quant

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

2,5 х103 copies/ml

R-B7-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC, MX, A, B

G.vaginalis/Lactobac. species Real-TM Quant

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

2,5 х103 copies/ml

TB7-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A, B

Gardnerella vaginalis Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

2,5 х103 copies/ml

B7-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A, B

Gardnerella vaginalis Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

100

2,5 х103 copies/ml

TB74-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A, B

Bacterial Vaginosis Real-TM Quant

Complete Real Time Test for quantitative detection of

Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Lactobacillus

spp. and total bacteriae quantity in the vaginal biotope with

DNA-Sorb-A extraction kit

R

CE

100

2,5 х103 copies/ml

B74-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, MX, SC, A, B

Bacterial Vaginosis Real-TM Quant

Multiplex RT-PCR for quantitative detection of Gardnerella

vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Lactobacillus spp. and total

bacteriae quantity in the vaginal biotope

R

CE

100

2,5 х103 copies/ml

B-7-100R

Gardnerella vaginalis 355/640 IC

A

CE

110

2,5 х103 copies/ml