Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a member of the retrovirus family) differentiated on structural and antigenic properties into two virus types: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-2 occurs considerably less often than HIV-1. In accordance with 1991 nomenclature, there are three independent HIV-1 groups: «М» (main); «О» (outlier); «N» (non-V/non-O). Groups O and N are less widely spread and occur in African countries. Group M includes 11 subtypes: А1, А2, B, C, D, F1, F2, G, H, J, K. The virus is transmitted by three ways: at heterosexual and homosexual intercourse, parenteral with blood and blood products and vertically from the infected mother to the child by an intrauterine way, during child delivery or soon after childbirth at breast feeding. Detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has a lot of advantages:

  • Detection of virus DNA/RNA reduces the “serological window”

  • PCR is an indispensable approach for HIV-diagnostics in children born from HIV-infected mothers

  • Determination of HIV RNA in plasma (viral load) is obligatory in monitoring therapy effectiveness

ADVANTAGES OF SACACE™ HIV REAL-TM QUANT KIT 

  • Application of primers and probes in the most conservative area of the HIV-1 polymerase gene allows effective detection of the majority of HIV-1 subtypes.

  • Use of Quantitative Internal Control (concentration reported in Data Card) allows not only to monitor the extraction procedure and to check possible PCR inhibition, but also to verify possible losses of RNA during extraction procedure thus enabling to calculate precisely the HIV viral load.

  • Two positive controls of the extraction: Pos1-low viral load and Pos2–medium viral load that are quantitatively described in Data Card allow quality control of the conducted analysis.

  • Use of Quantitative Standards for HIV RNA and HIV IC enabling to calculate precisely the HIV viral load.

  • Wide linear range (25 - 5 x 106 copies/ml)

HIV RNA Quant kits

V0-96/3FRT

SA, RG*

 

HIV Real-TM Quant Dx NEW CE1023

Real Time PCR with positive controls and standards

(96 ready to use lyophilized tubes – 50 µl Reaction mix)

R

CE1023

96

Linearity:

48 - 1 x 107

IU/mL

*optimized also on iQ, SC, MX, A, B, LC

HIV associated Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir is strongly associated with the presence of the HLA-B*5701 allele. Abacavir (Ziagen, Kivexa and Trizivir) is a potent antiretroviral drug that is a popular choice for first-line antiretroviral HIV therapy. Its main disadvantage is a hypersensitivity reaction that occurs in 5% - 8% of patients treated with this drug. HLA-B*5701 Real-TM test can predict who will develop a severe allergic reaction to the anti-HIV drug abacavir.

H53-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

HLA B*5701 Real-TM

Real Time Amplification Kit

R

CE

100

1 х103 cells/ml

HIV associated Infections

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) or pneumocystosis is caused by the yeast-like fungus (which had previously been erroneously classified as a protozoan) Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii). P. jirovecii is one of several organisms now known to cause life-threatening opportunistic infections in patients with advanced HIV infection worldwide.

TP2-50FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii) Real-TM

Complete Real Time Test with DNA/RNA Prep extraction kit

R

CE

50

5 х102 copies/ml

P2-50FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Pneumocystis jirovecii (carinii) Real-TM

Real Time Amplification kit

R

CE

50

5 х102 copies/ml

Cryptococcosis, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, is the most common fungal disease in HIV infected persons and it is the AIDS-defining illness in 60-70% of HIV infected patients.

F4-100FRT

SA, RG, iQ, SC,MX, A,IL,B,LC

Cryptococcus neoformans Real-TM

Real Time Amplification Kit

R

CE

100

400 copies/ml